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skeleton found under car park: confirmed to be King Richard III

10:23 am - 02/04/2013
A skeleton found beneath a Leicester car park has been confirmed as that of English king Richard III.

Experts from the University of Leicester said DNA from the bones matched that of descendants of the monarch's family.

Lead archaeologist Richard Buckley, from the University of Leicester, told a press conference to applause: "Beyond reasonable doubt it's Richard."

Mr Buckley said the bones had been subjected to "rigorous academic study" and had been carbon dated to a period from 1455-1540.

Dr Jo Appleby, an osteo-archaeologist from the university's School of Archaeology and Ancient History, revealed the bones were of a man in his late 20s or early 30s. Richard was 32 when he died.

His skeleton had suffered 10 injuries, including eight to the skull, at around the time of death. Two of the skull wounds were potentially fatal. One was a "slice" removing a flap of bone, the other was caused by bladed weapon which went through and hit the opposite side of the skull - a depth of more than 10cm (4ins).

Dr Appleby said: "Both of these injuries would have caused an almost instant loss of consciousness and death would have followed quickly afterwards. "In the case of the larger wound, if the blade had penetrated 7cm into the brain, which we cannot determine from the bones, death would have been instantaneous."

Other wounds included slashes or stabs to the face and the side of the head. There was also evidence of "humiliation" injuries, including a pelvic wound likely to have been caused by an upward thrust of a weapon, through the buttock.

Richard III was portrayed as deformed by some Tudor historians and indeed the skeleton's spine is badly curved, a condition known as scoliosis.

However, there was no trace of a withered arm or other abnormalities described in the more extreme characterisations of the king.

Without the scoliosis, which experts believe developed during teenage years, he would have been about 5ft 8ins (1.7m) tall, but the curvature would have made him appear "considerably" shorter.

Dr Appleby said: "The analysis of the skeleton proved that it was an adult male but was an unusually slender, almost feminine, build for a man.

"Taken as a whole, the skeletal evidence provides a highly convincing case for identification as Richard III."

Richard was a royal prince until the death of his brother Edward IV in 1483. Appointed as protector of his nephew, Edward V, Richard instead assumed the reins of power.

Edward and his brother Richard, known as the Princes in the Tower, disappeared soon after. Rumours circulated they had been murdered on the orders of their uncle.

Challenged by Henry Tudor, Richard was killed at Bosworth in 1485 after only two years on the throne.
DNA trail

He was given a hurried burial beneath the church of Greyfriars in the centre of Leicester.

Mr Buckley said the grave was clumsily cut, with sloping sides and too short for the body, forcing the head forward. "There was no evidence of a coffin or shroud which would have left the bones in a more compact position. "Unusually, the arms are crossed and this could be an indication the body was buried with the wrists still tied," he added.

Greyfriars church was demolished during the Reformation in the 16th Century and over the following centuries its exact location was forgotten.

However, a team of enthusiasts and historians managed to trace the likely area - and, crucially, after painstaking genealogical research, they found a 17th-generation descendant of Richard's sister with whose DNA they could compare any remains.

Joy Ibsen, from Canada, died several years ago but her son, Michael, who now works in London, provided a sample.

The researchers were fortunate as, while the DNA they were looking for was in all Joy Ibsen's offspring, it is only handed down through the female line and her only daughter has no children. The line was about to stop.

But the University of Leicester's experts had other problems.

Dr Turi King, project geneticist, said there had been concern DNA in the bones would be too degraded: "The question was could we get a sample of DNA to work with, and I am extremely pleased to tell you that we could."

She added: "There is a DNA match between the maternal DNA of the descendants of the family of Richard III and the skeletal remains we found at the Greyfriars dig. In short, the DNA evidence points to these being the remains of Richard III."

In August 2012, an excavation began in a city council car park - the only open space remaining in the likely area - which quickly identified buildings connected to the church. The bones were found in the first days of the dig and were eventually excavated under forensic conditions.

Details of the reburial ceremony have yet to be released, but Philippa Langley from the Richard III Society said plans for a tomb were well advanced.

She said of the discovery of Richard's skeleton: "I'm totally thrilled, I'm overwhelmed to be honest, it's been a long hard journey. I mean today as we stand it's been nearly four years.

"It's the culmination of a lot of hard work. I think, as someone said to me earlier, it's just the end of the beginning.

"We're going to completely reassess Richard III, we're going to completely look at all the sources again, and hopefully there's going to be a new beginning for Richard as well."

i bolded a few important bits but really the whole article is fascinating.

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roadskoller 4th-Feb-2013 10:04 pm (UTC)
Wow. How cool.
mycenaes 4th-Feb-2013 10:04 pm (UTC)
I am so excited and super nerding out about this, hahaha.
moonshaz 6th-Feb-2013 12:21 am (UTC)
OMG, me, toooo!
blondebeaker 4th-Feb-2013 10:25 pm (UTC)
I've been having a massive genealogy geekout over the Canadian connection to this. Its quite rare to be able to go back that far!
velvetunicorn 5th-Feb-2013 04:58 am (UTC)
ikr? i thought that was so cool that they were able to figure that out.
thistlerose 4th-Feb-2013 10:26 pm (UTC)
I was obsessed with the Plantagenets, particularly Richard III, back in high school and college. I even got to defend him in a mock trial in one of my history classes. This is very cool news.
romp 5th-Feb-2013 04:46 am (UTC)
callmetothejedi 4th-Feb-2013 10:30 pm (UTC)
How cool. :)
alryssa 4th-Feb-2013 11:10 pm (UTC)
*sings* ~they paved Greyfriar's site, and put up a parking lot~

mycenaes 4th-Feb-2013 11:23 pm (UTC)
lol irl, omg
chimbleysweep 4th-Feb-2013 11:17 pm (UTC)
I'm so used to these big discoveries not quite working out or being who or what they thought/hoped. It's exciting that this one is the real deal, and of such a fascinating historical figure.
witherwings 4th-Feb-2013 11:20 pm (UTC)

linda_lupos 5th-Feb-2013 01:27 am (UTC)
I was hoping someone would post this! :D <3 Jim <3 He's adorable.
johnjie 4th-Feb-2013 11:22 pm (UTC)
I have been geeking out over this for months (since they discovered the site) and I am so happy that it's turned out to be the real deal!
witherwings 4th-Feb-2013 11:42 pm (UTC)
In all seriousness though, I think this is brilliant, and I'm looking forward to a slew of new research (meaning new books and programmes) into Richard III now, based on this new research. /historygeek
sentinelsoul 4th-Feb-2013 11:44 pm (UTC)
Very cool. =D

What do all of you think, did he kill the princes? I believe he was involved somehow, though to what extent I'm not sure. Was it like Henry II and Thomas à Becket, and someone thought they were doing him a favor? Did he order their deaths directly? I waver on it. I wish they would do some DNA tests and studies of the skeletons they found back in the 1600s.
aviv_b 5th-Feb-2013 12:07 am (UTC)
Another Richard III geek here. I've always felt that Richard got a raw deal as the victors write the history. I think he did have them killed, but he certainly wasn't unique in killing off, disappearing, or otherwise disposing of his rivals. Even if they were young (Lady Jane Grey for example).

I'd also be interested in whether people believe (for the record, I do) that Richard's scoliosis played a role in how he was perceived in life and after his death.
(no subject) - Anonymous - Expand
myrrhmade 5th-Feb-2013 02:34 am (UTC)
bnmc2005 5th-Feb-2013 03:53 am (UTC)
As seen on the internet: "I guess he really did pave the way for the Tudors."

velvetunicorn 5th-Feb-2013 05:13 am (UTC)
I was nerding out over this big time today. Like I was so excited and babbling about it to my friend and he's like, "i don't get the big deal". he had no enthusiasm for it at all and I started going into the whole War of the Roses and what it means. lol. it was too funny.
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