The EU reinstated a travel ban on President Alexander Lukashenko and froze his assets, and the US imposed stricter financial controls and widened its travel bans on senior officials.
The foreign ministry threatened the EU with retaliation over the sanctions.
Mr Lukashenko was re-elected in a disputed vote in December, and launched a crackdown on dissent afterwards.
More than 600 people were detained, including seven of the election candidates, after protests against what international monitors said was a rigged vote.
On Monday, the EU confirmed it had reinstated a travel ban on Mr Lukashenko, and widened the ban to include 157 of his associates.
The EU had originally banned Belarusian leader in 2006 after the last presidential election, but suspended the ban two years later in an attempt to encourage reforms.
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